For the sixth consecutive year, Japan's net immigration has been increasing to record highs. This is primarily a function of Japanese PM Shinzo Abe's immigration policy, which allows immigrants to work in Japan in certain sectors. The economic analysis shows that the net benefits to Japan's economy outweigh the costs, and Japan's producers can benefit significantly from increased access to labor. Additionally, Japan currently experiences problems with its social security program, which is funded by the working generation, because of low fertility rates.
From an economic perspective, so long as Japan's immigrants are able to generate more tax income than the costs of the public goods provided to them by the government. However, this means that the Japanese government would have to continue its policy of allowing only high-skilled labor to immigrate into Japan.
There are also legitimate concerns about the potential social and political impacts of increasing foreign migration. Because immigration (like trade) produces winners and losers, there may be political friction from the Japanese working-class population due to increased competition in the domestic labor market. There may also be social friction if immigrants do not understand the Japanese language and are culturally dissimilar from other citizens. Immigration has historically been a heated issue in Japan, which only allowed limited numbers of Western traders to trade in the port of Nagasaki in the 16th century (analogous to China's Canton trade). It wasn't until Commodore Perry's expedition and the Convention of Kanagawa that Japan opened fully to the West. Of Japan's immigrants, most are Chinese and Vietnamese, but there are increasingly diverse diasporas in Japan - which may produce positive externalities through a diversity of skills and perspectives in business and industry, but may also exacerbate racial tensions within Japan.